SSG and Hydration with Yew

In this post I go over how I rewrote this website in Rust using the Yew framework with SSG and hydration. I cover a number of the issues that I encountered and how I addressed them.

30 Aug 2023
22 min read

For some time now, I’ve been hoping to update this website to move away from using Next.js with TypeScript towards something written in Rust, ideally making use of WebAssembly. At work we’ve had quite a lot of success using WebAssembly, both for some of our web interfaces, and to provide extensibility for our device software.

This has left me quite keen to explore the opportunity to use WebAssembly, along with the Yew web framework, to create a statically generated website that uses hydration to provide interactivity. This project, whilst complete, has not been without some frustrations and issues. I felt it might be worth documenting some of the more interesting problems I encountered along the way.

This site is now built using Hugo. If you want to see the code for this site whilst it was using the Yew framework, you can checkout [v2.2.3], which is the last release before the change over to using hugo.

What is SSG and Hydration?

If you’re already familiar with this topic, you might want to skip ahead to the next section.

These days, it is fairly common for web applications to use libraries such as React or Vue.js to power their user interface. These libraries typically offer excellent approaches to building powerful interactive interfaces on the web. It is not uncommon for web applications to be developed as a Single Page Application (SPA), where a single HTML page is loaded which provides the entire application.

There are some drawbacks to using an SPA, which can include:

  • It can be next to impossible for a search engine bot to crawl the content of an SPA. Typically search engine crawlers do not execute JavaScript, and therefore site content is often not indexed.
  • As SPAs can entail large amounts of JavaScript that must be loaded by the browser prior to execution, there can be a noticeable delay before the site is displayed.

Static Site Generation (SSG) describes a methodology in which the HTML for each page of a site is generated ahead of time as part of a build process, as opposed to upon each HTTP request. The generated HTML can be served as static content, such as via a CDN. This approach is best suited for websites where the content does not change very often.

Various frameworks exist, such as Next.js and Gatsby, that help mitigate the drawbacks of SPAs whilst maintaining the advantages of libraries such as React or Vue.js. Often these frameworks use SSG as a mechanism to achieve this. In order to maintain the rich interactive interface afforded by an SPA, frameworks will offer support for hydration: a process whereby client-side JavaScript attaches to the existing HTML served in the initial response, rather than generating it.

The Yew Web Framework

Yew is a component-based framework for Rust that is similar to React, and typically compiles to WebAssembly. Tools like Trunk can make the processes of building an SPA using Yew quite a delightful experience.

Yew includes support for Server-Side Rendering, which allows us to render the site on the server in response to a request.

SSR with Yew is quite easy to work with: rather than use the Renderer to mount our application in the <body> element of our page, I use the LocalServerRenderer type to render the initial HTML of our application.

use yew::LocalServerRenderer;

async fn render_my_app() -> String {
    let renderer = LocalServerRenderer::<MyApp>::new();

Yew also includes support for SSR hydration, where the client-side Yew application attaches to the HTML generated server-side. Using the hydrate method of the Renderer type will hydrate all elements under the <body> element of our page.

use yew::Renderer;

fn hydrate_my_app() {
    let renderer = Renderer::<MyApp>::new();
The LocalServerRenderer and hydration support will require the ssr and hydration features to be enabled for the yew crate.

This is very close to what I needed in order to achieve my goal of a hydrating SSG using WebAssembly:

  1. I knew that I could generate some static HTML from a Yew application (SSG), and
  2. Once loaded into the browser, I could attach a Yew application to that HTML (hydration).

Preparing for Hydration

In order for the dynamic elements of the site to be available once the statically generated HTML has been loaded by the web browser, the Yew application needs to be attached to the DOM using hydration.

In order to enable component hydration in Yew, the hydration feature needs to be enabled for the yew crate. I also needed to make sure to call the Renderer::hydrate method rather than the usual render method.

To ensure this is the case, I added a hydration feature to the main crate and this flag is set when building using Trunk:

trunk build --release --features hydration

This generates the index.html that I use as a template in the SSG along with the WebAssembly of the hydrating application.

Using Phantom Components

During hydration, I needed to make sure that the elements found in the HTML generated during SSG and loaded into the browser correspond exactly to those the hydrating application expects. This is mostly fairly simple, but there is one good example of where it is not so easy: the use of the HeadContext in the StaticApp component. When rendering the normal App used during a hydration build I do not have access to a HeadContext. As such, I need to use a PhantomComponent to tell Yew that there would have been a component of the given type in that location.

pub fn app() -> Html {
    html! {
                <AppContent />

Rendering Markdown

The main purpose of this site is to render some Markdown. I have fairly particular requirements for the HTML generated from these Markdown documents. For example, I want images to be included with an <img> tag within a <figure>, rather than inside a <p>, which is what is usually generated.

Getting the rendering of Markdown took me four attempts to get right, which is both frustrating and embarrassing.

First Attempt

My first attempt simply compiled the original Markdown documents into the WebAssembly by using the include_dir crate. I was then able to parse the Markdown and render it.

Unfortunately this had the drawback of including all the code to parse Markdown and render it, increasing the size of the WebAssembly quite a lot. Additionally, it imposed quite a fair amount of processing on each navigation.

Once I added in support for syntax highlighting, the size of the WebAssembly increased dramatically, and the rendering speed was significantly affected. The latter was more pronounced on documents with many separate code blocks, which is pretty common on a programming blog.

Second Attempt

To address the issues I encountered with the first attempt, I decided that it would be better to parse the Markdown and render the HTML, including performing the syntax highlighting, during the compilation of the application. I would then just include the generated HTML in the WebAssembly.

I did this by splitting out the representation of a document into a separate model crate, and then creating a macros crate that would contain the macros for this process. Whilst I was at it, I also changed the parsing of the document metadata and the tags into their corresponding structures to use macros as well.

With these macros in place, I could include all the markdown and tags during compilation:


mod blog {

mod pages {

The tags! macro generates a TagId enumeration for all the tags parsed from the YAML file. The TagId enumeration implements the Display and FromStr traits that enable conversion to and from the slug for each tag. Additionally, a tags() function is generated that returns a HashMap mapping each slug to the corresponding Tag structure from the model crate.

The documents! macro is the more heavy-hitting macro: it parses all Markdown documents in a directory. A DocId enumeration is generated that contains an enumerator for each document. The enumeration implements the Display and FromStr traits that allow conversion between a DocId and the document slug (essentially the file name). Because of these two traits, the DocId type can be used in the Route type.

Two functions are also produced by the documents! macro: the documents() function that returns a Vec of model::Details structures describing the metadata of all the Markdown documents parsed from the directory. The second function, render(), takes a DocId and returns the rendered HTML as a &'static str.

The rendered HTML for a document, retrieved as an str reference from the generated render() function, was wrapped in a Yew VRaw. The VRaw type allows us to insert raw HTML into an application.

This worked very well at first. The pages loaded very quickly, and the rendered HTML strings were not that large. Unfortunately this quickly ran into a problem: Yew cannot hydrate a VRaw 🤬.

Third Attempt

Well I was getting fairly frustrated now. It seemed that I really needed to create a full virtual DOM for each document so that Yew could both render it during SSG and hydrate it once loaded. I couldn’t use raw HTML, as that could not be hydrated.

So, I proceeded to change the document rendering function from one that would simply return a reference to a string, to one that would build a virtual DOM:

// pub fn render(ident: DocId) -> Option<(Details<DocId>, &'static str)> NOPE
pub fn render(ident: DocId) -> Option<(Details<DocId>, Html)>

The documents! macro was changed quite significantly to generate code using a combination of Yew’s html! macro and raw generation of the VNode values.

This approach seemed to be working well. As I handled more of the variants of the Event and Tag enumerations that came from the Markdown parser, the size of the WebAssembly started to increase quite dramatically. The release build was fairly hefty, however the debug build quickly ballooned to over 20MB in size.

This started to push up against some limits in some of the tooling that I was using. For example, I was running into a limit on the maximum number of locals in the wasmparser crate. At the time of writing, this limit is currently set to 50,000. This is not actually an arbitrary value, this limit can also bee seen in Firefox and Chrome. And honestly, exceeding fifty thousand locals in a function is quite concerning.

Whilst I was still able to use the generated code when compiling with optimisations enabled, it quickly became difficult to work with. Moreover, the size of the WebAssembly was starting to get quite large, even in release mode.

I considered refactoring the code to try and break up the rendering functions somewhat, but that would required finding out exactly where Rust was generating all these locals, and I really just ran out of fucks to give by this point.

Forth and Final Attempt

After a break, I embarked on what I hoped was my final attempt. I would rebuild the Markdown renderer… again. This time, however, it would not generate HTML as a string, or try and generate a VNode: instead it would generate a bytestring. That bytestring would contain a simplified virtual DOM that would be serialized using the postcard crate. Then, on the client side, I would write a function that maps the deserialized mini-DOM to Yew’s VNode structure.

To start with, I defined a RenderNode enumeration that contained the three types of node I wanted to render: text, HTML elements and icons images.

#[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialEq, Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub enum RenderNode {

The RenderText type was simply a wrapper around a String, and the RenderIcon was an enumeration of the icons that I needed during rendering of the Markdown documents. The RenderElement type was a structure that encapsulated the name of the tag, any attributes, and any children.

#[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialEq, Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub struct RenderElement {
    pub tag: TagName,
    pub attributes: Vec<RenderAttribute>,
    pub children: Vec<RenderNode>,

Notice that the tag field is the TagName type, which is an enumeration of all the tag names that I need during rendering. This allows me to use TagName::Div or TagName::Figure rather than the strings "div" or "figure". This saves quite a lot of space, and improves performance when I need to map a RenderNode to a VNode on the client as I’ll only be comparing discriminators rather than strings.

The attributes field is a simple Vec of a RenderAttribute structure. This structure pairs an AttributeName with a value for that attribute in a String.

#[derive(Debug, Clone, PartialEq, Serialize, Deserialize)]
pub struct RenderAttribute {
    pub name: AttributeName,
    pub value: String,

Just like the TagName enumeration, each attribute that I need is described by an AttributeName enumeration, such as AttributeName::Class or AttributeName::Href.

During rendering, each RenderNode can be rendered to Html with a simple match statement:

fn render_node(node: &RenderNode) -> Html {
    match node {
        RenderNode::Text(RenderText { content }) =>

        RenderNode::Element(RenderElement {
        }) => {
            let mut tag = VTag::new(tag.as_str());

            for attribute in attributes {

            for child in children {
                let child = render_node(child);


        RenderNode::Icon(icon) => {
            html! { <Icon icon_id={icon_id_for_icon(*icon)} /> }

Notice that the TagName and AttributeName enumerations both have a to_string() method that returns a &'static str suitable for use with the VTag::new and VTag::add_attribute() methods. Whilst the VTag::new() function can take anything that implements Into<Cow<str>>, the VTag::add_attribute() actually requires the attribute name to be a &'static str. It’s almost like planning something pays off 😌.

Examining the output from this attempt, the size of the generated byte string is never especially large. The following table lists the sizes for three of the blog posts in this site.

PostMarkdownByte StringCompressed Byte StringSSG HTML
Moving to Mastodon10k11k5k56k
Allocating memory for DMA in Linux36k57k15k118k
Overlays with Custom Widgets in GTK35k72k12k141k

The last post in the table, Overlays with Custom Widgets in GTK, is the largest of the generated byte strings at 72kb. As you can see from the second-to-last column, the byte strings compress quite well, which helps with the transmission of the produced WebAssembly.

Static Generation

To achieve the static site generation (SSG), I built a simple tool as part of the site called site-build. This tool generates the static version of the site by taking the following steps:

  1. Retrieve the index.html output by the Trunk tool and use it as a template for each generated HTML page. It is into this template that the tool inserts the HTML rendered by Yew’s LocalServerRenderer.
  2. Render each of the routes of the application.
  3. Copy over all the remaining assets output by Trunk, which will include the WebAssembly and JavaScript glue.
  4. Generate things like the sitemap.xml, and the Atom and RSS feeds.

HTML Template

Each page that is rendered does so by injecting the output of the yew::LocalServerRenderer into an HTML template; remember that Yew will expect to hydrate into the <body> element, so I must also place the rendered page content in the same location.

<!doctype html>
    <!-- RENDER GOES HERE -->

The HTML that I used as a template was the index.html output by Trunk. Trunk essentially takes an index.html as an input, processes any asset instructions found within, and outputs those assets along with a new index.html. All this is typically output into a dist directory.

The input index.html contains instructions for the processing of assets. Each instruction is given as a <link> element with the data-trunk attribute. For example, I want to copy all the files and directories under the public/content directory to the dist directory for deployment. To do this, I can tell Trunk to copy the entire directory:

<link data-trunk rel="copy-dir" href="public/content" />

The CSS for the application is compiled by postcss into a single CSS file. I want this CSS file to be included in the HTML file, and Trunk can do this:

<link data-trunk rel="inline" type="css" href="target/main.css" />

The final index.html is generated by running trunk build, which compiles all the resources into the dist directory along with the index.html.

The site-build program loads the index.html from the dist directory and marks the insertion locations for the <body> and <head> tags. These locations are used to insert rendered HTML into both the <head> and <body> elements of each page.

Rendering Routes

In order to render all the routes, I first needed both a function that could take a Route and render it to an HTML file and some Iterator over Route. In order to get an iterator over the routes in the app I used the Sequence trait from the enum-iterator crate. I was then able to iterator over all the routes using the all function to collect up all the routes:

struct RenderRoute {
    pub route: Route,
    pub path: PathBuf,

fn collect_routes() -> Vec<RenderRoute> {
        .map(|route| {
            let path = route.to_path();
            let path = if path == "/" {
            } else {

            RenderRoute { route, path }

The collect_routes function iterates over all the routes in the app and collects them into a Vec of RenderRoute. For each route, the RenderRoute structure tells us:

  1. The route to render. This is passed to the Yew application when the page needs to be rendered, and tells our router which page to render.
  2. A PathBuf that contains the relative path to the output HTML file. A special case is present to handle the empty route, and use index.html instead.

The rendering of each route is performed by a render_route function. This function create a Yew app for static rendering and uses the render_to_string method of the LocalServerRenderer type to render the HTML. The contents are then injected into the HTML template and written to the file specified in the RenderRoute::path field.

In order to perform the static rendering, I needed to swap out the router used by the application. Normally, the application uses the BrowserRouter type. This uses the browser’s native history to handle the routing, and is typically the router that you want to use in an application.

However, for the static rendering there is no BrowserHistory as this code is not running in a web browser. Conveniently, there is an in-memory history as part of the Yew router called MemoryHistory. I used this to create a Router component as opposed to a BrowserRouter.

#[derive(Properties, PartialEq)]
pub struct StaticAppProps {
    pub route: Route,
    pub head: HeadContext,

impl StaticAppProps {
    fn create_history(&self) -> AnyHistory {
        let path = self.route.to_path();
        let history = MemoryHistory::with_entries(vec![path]);

pub fn static_app(props: &StaticAppProps) -> Html {
    let history = props.create_history();

    html! {
        <ContextProvider<HeadContext> context={props.head.clone()}>
            <Router history={history}>
                <AppContent />
Something you might have noticed here is the addition of the HeadContext type in the StaticAppProps. This is used to capture HTML that should be written into the <head> element, rather than the <body>. I’ll get to that in the next section.

With the StaticApp component prepared I was then able to render each route using the LocalServerRenderer introduced earlier:

async fn render_route(&self, route: Route) -> String {
    // Create the `HeadContext` to capture HTML written to the <head>.
    let head = HeadContext::default();

    // Create a `LocalServerRenderer` over the `StaticApp` component.
    let render = {
        let head = head.clone();
        LocalServerRenderer::<StaticApp>::with_props(StaticAppProps { route, head })

    // Render the HTML for the <body> from the `LocalServerRenderer`.
    let mut body = String::new();
    render.render_to_string(&mut body).await;

    // Create a `LocalServerRenderer` over the `HeadRender` component.
    let render =
        LocalServerRenderer::<HeadRender>::with_props(HeadRenderProps { context: head });

    // Render the HTML for the <head>.
    let mut head = String::new();
    render.render_to_string(&mut head).await;

    // Insert the HTML for the <head> and <body> elements into the template.
    self.template.render(head, body).await

The output of this function is a String that contains the index.html output from Trunk, with the HTML generated for the given Route inserted. This can then be written to a file.

Page Titles and Metadata

For each page that I generated, I not only needed to inject HTML into the <body>, but also into the <head>. For example, if I did not do this, each page would have the same <title>: that which was originally in the index.html input fed to Trunk. Additional elements need to be added to <head> such as OpenGraph and other SEO nonsense.

In order to support writing to the <head> I use a <Head> component. This component uses a Yew portal to render into the <head> element. The element is queried from the document using the head() function from gloo::utils which returns the HTMLHeadElement. I retrieve the element in a use_effect_once and store it in a state variable. This allows me to use <Head> during static rendering with no effect: the effect will not execute until after hydration. This is important, as the gloo::utils::head() function will panic if not run in a browser, and Yew cannot hydrate a portal.

#[derive(Properties, PartialEq)]
pub struct HeadProps {
    pub children: Children,

pub fn head(props: &HeadProps) -> Html {
    let head = use_state(|| None::<HtmlHeadElement>);

    // If we have the `HeadContext`, then add our HTML to it.
    if let Some(head_cxt) = use_context::<HeadContext>() {
        head_cxt.append(html! {

        let head = head.clone();
        use_effect_once(move || {
            let head_el = gloo::utils::head();

            // Remove the elements that were inserted into the <head> by the SSG.

            // Store the <head> tag in the state.

            || ()

    if let Some(head) = &*head {
        create_portal(html! { <>{props.children.clone()}</> }, head.clone().into())
    } else {
        html! {}

This component only handles the insertion of HTML into the <head> during normal operation of the application or after hydration. I need to insert elements directly into the <head> tag when performing static rendering. To enable this, I added a HeadContext that contains a Vec<Html>. When I use the <Head> component and the HeadContext is available, a copy of the HTML that would be inserted into the <head> is also added to the HeadContext.

Definition of HeadContext
Currently the HeadContext type just wraps an Rc<RefCell<Vec<Html>>>. It provides a function to add an Html to the Vec, and another function to clone the Vec<Html> out of the HeadContext. The use of Rc<RefCell<...>> is fine in this case, as I’m using the LocalServerRenderer. However, the ServerRenderer::with_props() constructor requires that the property type is Send, which is not true for HeadContext. If you want to use the ServerRenderer type instead of LocalServerRenderer, you will probably want to change the HeadContext type to somethine like an Arc<Mutex<...>> rather than an Rc<RefCell<...>>.

When it comes to rendering the application, I provide the HeadContext value in the StaticApp component, and capture any Html stored in it. After rendering the contents of the <body> a new LocalServerRenderer is created for the HeadRender component. This component simply renders the content of the HeadContext. This renderer is then used to render the contents of <head>. After rendering, the HTML is inserted into the <head> between two <script> tags:

  <script id="head-ssg-before"></script>
  <!-- Generated HTML goes here -->
  <script id="head-ssg-after"></script>

This allows me to write code to inject HTML into the <head> that will work with both the normal operation of the site, during static generation, and when hydrating.

Unfortunately, there is a small problem with this approach to inserting elements in to the <head>: Yew cannot hydrate portals.

As I cannot hydrate a VPortal, the portal that I use in the Head component will not be attached to the elements added to the <head> during SSG. The result of this is that, when visitors navigate using the BrowserRouter, those SSG elements will linger, and our new <head> elements will be overshadowed or ignored. This can lead to some confusion.

To deal with this, I added some code that will remove all SSG generated elements in the <head> when the component mounts. When the application hydrates and the use_effect_once is executed, the elements added by the SSG are removed and a reference to the <head> is stored in the state. When the state changes, this causes a re-render of the <Head> component, which will create the portal that adds the components back into the <head>, only this time they are controlled by Yew and can be changed.

The site removes the elements that were added during SSG by simply removing all elements in the <head> tag between the <script> tags with the IDs head-ssg-before and head-ssg-after. I also remove these marker <script> tags as well.

Copying and Generating Resources

The remaining tasks for the site-build program to complete are as follows:

  1. Copy all the resources output by Trunk into the dist directory to the out directory, and
  2. Generate the remaining resources.

The copying of resources is simply a matter of copying everything that the Trunk tool wrote to the dist directory into the out directory. This includes the WebAssembly compiled with the hydration feature and the JavaScript glue generated by wasm-bindgen. The site-build tool is careful to skip the index.html file that was used as a template. If it did not, it would overwrite the file with the same name that was generated during SSG for the Route::Home route.

Finally, the tool needs to generate a few resources:

  1. The sitemap.xml file,
  2. The RSS feed (found under /feeds/feed.xml), and
  3. The Atom feed (found under /feeds/atom.xml).

The first file is generated by simply building a String containing the XML. The last two are generated by populating the structures from the rss and atom_syndication crates and then writing their generated XML to the corresponding files.


With the site written and prepared for hydration, the markdown parsed and semi-rendered during compilation, and the site-build tool complete and working… I was finally able to get to the point where the site was being statically generated and any dynamic elements were being provided by WebAssembly.

At the time of writing this conclusion, the WebAssembly that will be transmitted to the browser is 816 Kb. The Next.js site included a total of 997 kB of JavaScript.

Loading just the home page loads 1.11 MB (465.27 kB transferred). The Next.js version of this site loaded 1.42 MB (545.68 kB transferred).

For all intents and purposes I’d call the sites the same size. When I first started using WebAssembly, I was quite surprised at results like this. For a long time I had been under the impression that WebAssembly typically required very large files.

It is very difficult to profile this site: it does very little other than rendering some HTML. There are some places where the WebAssembly is noticeably faster than the Next.js version of the site due to features that are no longer present. For example, the previous version of the site included a search system that could highlight tokens within a document when rendering it. This added some overhead to the page generation that is not present in the WebAssembly version.

I think that WebAssembly and the Rust web frameworks have evolved to a point where they are a suitable replacement for the likes of React for most of my use cases, both personal and professional. There are some larger applications that I would need to think about before attempting to implement as I have with this one and others, mostly notably around the volume of content and the complexity of the components.

In terms of this site, I think I will keep it as it is and work on some more content. I have a few other posts in the works that I need to finish off.